When I first started teaching, we used a hundred chart in primary classrooms. The patterns of 1 more/1 less and 10 more/10 less help students develop an understanding of tens and ones. In other words, they are tools to teach place value concepts. Several years back, the standards were rewritten and we now use 120 charts. By adding two more rows to the hundred chart, we can help students understand that the patterns found in 2-digit numbers extended past 100. In recent years I’ve also seen a lot of conversation about flipping the 120 chart so that the smaller numbers are on the bottom. You can read more about that and grab a freebie here.
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Although students seem to easily master the hundred chart patterns, sometimes you can get what I call a “false positive.” By that I mean that it seems like they understand because they can provide a correct answer, but they might not understand the underlying concept. For example, when they tell you that 10 more than 45 is 55, do they really understand the place value behind the pattern. One way to help ensure they do is to use manipulatives when introducing the patterns. In 1st grade, students might use linking cubes to build the number 45 and then add another 10-cube train to show why 10 more is 55. In 2nd grade, they could do the same exercise with base-10 blocks.
I’ve got these free printables for you to download. The link is right below the picture.
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