It’s the end of the year, and I’ve been out helping the grade levels with their math materials inventory. One thing I ran across in a couple of the planning rooms was flashcards. In the scheme of all things CRA, flashcards are totally abstract. They do not foster an understanding of the facts presented. So how do you use the flashcards for more effective learning? Take it back to the concrete and representational stages. I created two little recording sheets you could use in workstations–one for addition facts and another for multiplication. Students choose a flashcard, use counters to model it, and then draw a representation of the fact. Easy peasy!! The more you start to think in the CRA framework, the more natural activities like this will come to you.