# The 3 Reads Protocol for Solving Word Problems

Raise your hand if you wish your students were more confident and successful in solving word problems. Right, that’s what I thought. And the answer probably doesn’t change much based on your grade level. Face it, word problems are just plain hard!

### What DOESN’T WORK

Over the years, very well-intentioned teachers have developed strategies designed to help students solve word problems. Two such strategies that are still quite prevalent are “problem-solving” models and the use of keywords. The idea is that if you follow these steps and look for these keywords, you will be able to solve any word problem. Unfortunately, it’s just not that simple, and despite their widespread use, these strategies are not very effective.

If you look at the CUBES problem-solving model, reading the problem is not even one of the steps! And if you’re thinking,ย Well, of course students know to read the problem! you might want to watch this model in action. I have more often than not seen students just literally start circling numbers (and not even the labels that go with the numbers…) without ever having read the problem. And keywords are not reliable either. Some word problems have no keywords, and keywords in multi-step problems end up confusing students because of the mixed messages they send.

So can we just agree that something else is needed and put these “strategies” to rest? Students fail at solving word problems for one reasonโthey don’t understand what the problem is asking them to do. It’s a comprehension problem, so students need reading comprehension skills.

### The 3 Reads Protocol

Let me first say that if you search the Internet for 3 Reads Protocol, you’ll find that there are slightly differing versions. What I’m about to describe is the version that I find to be particularly effective. Regardless of the version, we are reading the problem three different times and each reading has a different focus.

The 3 Reads Protocol is a guided learning experience. Students are presented with the problem in stages, and with each read the teacher asks probing questions. Looking at an example is probably the easiest way to understand the protocol, so let’s dive in.

To begin the 3 Reads Protocol, the teacher presents the students with a problem, and the class reads the problem together. Probably the easiest way to do this is with a PowerPoint or Google Slides file. Notice that with the first read, there are no numbers and no question. We just want the students to understand what the story is about and make a mental picture. Without numbers, students have to focus on the meaning of the words! After reading the problem together, the teacher asks what the story is about and calls on students for responses. Don’t be surprised if the responses are very general at first (girls, flowers,ย etc.). Ask for additional details, if necessary. Ideally, for this problem, you’d like the students to offer the names of the girls and the types of flowers.

For the second read, the problem is again presented to the students, but this time it includes the numbers. Read the problem again whole class. The questions you will ask now are all related to the numbers in the story. Our goal is for the students to understand that it’s not just 10, it’s 10 daisies. Students might also offer relationshipsโe.g., Natassja picked more daisies than Ayriale.

Finally, with the third read, students are asked to generate questions that could be answered using the information in the problem. Even though the problem looks just like it did for the second read, don’t skip the reading part! Some problems won’t lend themselves to very many different questions. I like to use this problem as an example because many different questions can be generated. Why? Because there are lots of different numbers in the problem. Here’s a sampling of questions that could be asked. I’m sure you can think of many others.

• How many flowers did Ayriale pick?
• How many flowers did Ayriale and Natassja pick?
• Which girl picked more flowers? How many more?
• How many daisies did the girls pick?

That’s the protocol in a nutshell! Once a question or questions have been generated, you can have students go on to solve the problem.

1. When students are solving word problems independently, do I ask them to ignore the numbers and the question?

No! That would be pretty much impossible for them to do. By routinely solving problems using the 3 Reads Protocol with either the whole class or in small groups, you are helping students develop good reading habits that will transfer to their independent work. When they are working independently, the idea is that they will automatically think about the context, identify what the numbers mean within that context, and better understand what the question is asking them to find.

2. Where do I find problems for the 3 Reads Protocol?

I’m sure you can find some that have already been prepared, but it’s super easy to make your own! Just set up a PowerPoint or Google Slides file and format it however you like. Maybe you want a colorful border or a particular font. Use problems that you already have from your resourcesโtextbooks, supplemental books, etc. You’ll need two slides for each problem. On the first slide, type the problem from your resource, leaving out the numbers and the question. On the second slide, add in the numbers. Use a nice big font so students can easily read the problem when projected on your interactive whiteboard. That’s all there is to it!

If you have other questions, add them in the comments below, and I’ll add them to the FAQ. I’d also love to hear how the 3 Reads Protocol is working out in your classroom!

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1. Robin Carlile says:

fantastic thoughts! I LOVE this approach. I’ve used a resource from Lucky Little Learners that is called Numberless Word Problems. This 3 reads protocol will work perfectly with that resource!

1. Donna Boucher says:

Yes! It does include elements of numberless word problems, which I was first introduced to by Brian Bushart.

2. Wanda Lacreita Porter says:

I appreciate your thoughts on problem solving however the use of CUBES has been totally effective for the past three years with my students who never attempt word problems. You stated that not circling the “labels”, I suppose you mean units connected to the problem. I use this strategy daily and we circle both numbers and units. I’ve made it my own. Let me also reiterate that this strategy works exceptionally well with students who have low reading abilities too. I spend 5 weeks on CUBES and we slowly work our way into the Three Read Protocol which also helps the “non-reader”

1. Donna Boucher says:

Thank you for sharing your experiences! Since you transition to Three Reads, I’m curious why you wouldn’t start with it. I’d also be interested to know what grade level you teach.

1. Porter, Wanda says:

I teach both 7th and 8th grade, and many times they have not had any experience with either. CUBEs is embedded with 3-read. I read the question. Students read the questions, we use cubes to understand quantities and the operations ( C and B) used to bring these quantities together. Then we underline the question to provide clarity and to determine what type of answer we are seeking. In our data, we found that our students do not attempt word problems on any formative assessments so we had to start with decreasing student fear of problem-solving and reading. When I used CUBES, I found that many students could answer the question however they had no idea what to do (operations) with the numbers due to a lack of experience,(key operational words) not knowledge ( they always wanted to add). Immediately, students would attempt word problems because CUBES allowed them to pull out what they needed, producing increased math confidence. As we continued with problem-solving, the 3 read protocol was introduced when solving multi-step word problems, student growth was tremendous!

2. Barbara says:

Excellent post!

1. Donna Boucher says:

Thank you! This strategy has so much potential for teaching students to approach word problems in a much more meaningful way!

3. Kerri says:

Hello! This strategy looks great and reaffirms how Iโve been teaching my son to read the problems through as many times as he needs to understand. Now I have the right questions to ask with each reading! Thank you! My question, are there still some strategies to go along with this protocol that you have found to be helpful to use in conjunction i.e. drawing a picture, making a chart, etc. Thanks so much!

1. Donna Boucher says:

Iโm so glad this provides you with the missing link! Drawing a picture or diagram is another powerful strategy that goes really well with 3 Reads because it helps students visualize whatโs going on in the problem.

4. Nat says:

Thank you for your post. The Three Read strategy is a gentle reminder of the power of cross-curricular reading strategies; coupling this annotation and graphic organizers will help students develop ways to process and solve simple to more complex multi-step word problems.

5. Marisa says:

I am a math interventionist at an elementary school. We see students K-5 and realize how important it is for us to have a common process/language when it comes to word problems. Looking forward to learning more about this and helping guide our school, thank you!

1. Donna Boucher says:

I absolutely agree about using common language and strategies campus-wide! It’s so much more effective than students having to adjust to their teacher’s language/strategies every new year.

6. Nancy says:

Thank you! I am going to try Three Reads Protocol for the first time next week with my 4th grade students. I am excited. I have had students read word problems all the way through before trying to solve the problem, however, I love the 3 Reads approach and the questions that go with each read. Thank you for breaking it down.

1. Donna Boucher says:

It’s a very powerful strategy! Good luck.

7. Joanne Blake says:

Many of the problems already include the question or questions. When first teaching the strategy, I can take the questions away and then we can compare to see if one of our questions matched the questions posed, but how to do facilitate the strategy when the question is there and you can’t take it away (thinking of assessments).

1. Donna Boucher says:

The idea is that when done regularly, students will develop comprehension skills that will transfer to solving “normal” word problems. They’ll know, for example, that reading it through the first time and ignoring the numbers helps them focus on what’s happening in the problem. You certainly want to help them make that connection, though. You might even show them a normal problem and explicitly model how to use 3 read strategies when the numbers and question are present.